The car that is transporting a bike is going to turn right. Was it appropriate of the driver to drive out onto the hard shoulder before turning?
”Use of the hard shoulder […] When you are going to turn right off the road and there are both oncoming vehicles and vehicles behind you. By using the hard shoulder, you do not obstruct the traffic on the carriageway.” (Du och jag i trafiken, körkortsbok / teoribok [You and me in traffic], 28th Edition, page 153)
Review of the options:
Yes, since the hard shoulder should always be used as an extra lane in conjunction with turning off. – Wrong, the driving licence literature specifically states that the hard shoulder is not to be counted as an extra lane (Driving Licence Book, 19th Edition, page 93). That you should “always” drive out on the hard shoulder in conjunction with turning off is also wrong; there are situations where it is not at all appropriate (e.g. when turning left).
Yes, since this makes it easier for other road users. – True, see the quotation above.
No, since it entails a high risk of misunderstanding. – Wrong, it rather entails increased clarity.
No, since the hard shoulder is only to be used in case of emergency. – Wrong, it can be used in other situations too; this one for example.