The reaction distance is the distance you travel from the point of detecting a hazard until you begin braking or swerving.

- The car’s speed (proportional increase):
- 2 x higher speed = 2 x longer reaction distance.
- 5 x higher speed = 5 x longer reaction distance.

- Your reaction time.
- Normally 0.5–2 seconds.
- 45–54 year-olds have the best reaction time in traffic.
- 18–24 year-olds and those over 60 have the same reaction time in traffic. Young people have sharper senses but older people have more experience.

- Anticipation of hazards.
- Preparedness.

- The necessity of decision-making (for example, between braking or steering out of the way).
- Alcohol, drugs and medication.
- Tiredness.

**Easy method**

**Formula:** Remove the last digit in the speed, multiply by the reaction time and then by 3.

**Example of calculation with a speed of 50 km/h and a reaction time of 1 second:**

50 km/h ⇒ 5

5 * 1 * 3 = 15 metres reaction distance

**More precise method**

**Formula:** d = (s * r) / 3.6

**d** = reaction distance in metres (to be calculated).**s** = speed in km/h.**r** = reaction time in seconds.**3.6** = fixed figure for converting km/h to m/s.

**Example of calculation with a speed of 50 km/h and a reaction time of 1 second:**

(50 * 1) / 3.6 = 13.9 metres reaction distance

Drive slowly or you might not even have time to react to oncoming traffic.

The braking distance is the distance the car travels from the point when you start braking until the car stands still.

- The vehicle’s speed (quadratic increase; “raised to the power of 2”):
- 2 x higher speed = 4 x longer braking distance.
- 3 x higher speed = 9 x longer braking distance.

- The road (gradient and conditions).
- The load.
- The brakes (condition, braking technology and how many wheels are braking).

It is very difficult to achieve reliable calculations of the braking distance as road conditions and the tyres’ grip can vary greatly. The braking distance may for example be 10 times longer when there is ice on the road.

**Easy method**

**Conditions:** Good and dry road conditions, good tyres and good brakes.

**Formula:** Remove the zero from the speed, multiply the figure by itself and then multiply by 0.4.

*The figure 0.4 is taken from the fact that the braking distance from 10 km/h in dry road conditions is approximately 0.4 metres. This has been calculated by means of researchers measuring the braking distance. Thus, in the simplified formula, we base our calculations on the braking distance at 10 km/h and increase it quadratically with the increase in speed.*

**Example of calculation with a speed of 10 km/h:**

10 km/h ⇒ 1

1 * 1 = 1

1 * 0.4 = 0.4 metres braking distance

**Example of calculation with a speed of 50 km/h:**

50 km/h ⇒ 5

5 * 5 = 25

25 * 0.4 = 10 metres braking distance

**More precise method**

**Conditions:** Good tyres and good brakes.

**Formula:** d = s^{2} / (250 * f)

**d** = braking distance in metres (to be calculated).**s** = speed in km/h.**250** = fixed figure which is always used.**f** = coefficient of friction, approx. 0.8 on dry asphalt and 0.1 on ice.

**Example of calculation with a speed of 50 km/h on dry asphalt:**

50^{2} / (250 * 0.8) = 12.5 metres braking distance

Stopping distance = reaction distance + braking distance

**It is summer and the road is dry. You are driving at 90 km/h with a car with good tyres and brakes. You suddenly notice a hazard on the road and brake forcefully. How long is the stopping distance if your reaction time is 1 second?**

The stopping distance is the *reaction distance + braking distance*. First we calculate the reaction distance:

- 90 km/h ⇒ 9
- 9 * 1 * 3 = 27 metres reaction distance

Then we calculate the braking distance:

- 90 km/h ⇒ 9
- 9 * 9 = 81
- 81 * 0.4 = 32 metres braking distance

Now both distances are combined:

- 27 + 32 = 59 metres stopping distance

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